Biology

Difference Between Active And Passive Immunity

immunity is the ability to identify, destroy and respond to a foreign body and remove it from the body. when considering human physiology and anatomy, it consists of large arms, innate immunity, and adaptive immunity. This system defense the body from a variety of pathogens and toxins. Active immunity is the first line of protection against pathogens through physical and chemical barriers such as the skin, mucous membranes, and saliva. Innate immunity defense against the foreign material while it is not specialized to deal especially with that foreign material. whereas adaptive immunity consists of humor and cellular immunity, and it can be categorized into active and passive immunity. Active and passive immunity differ in origin, execution, and latent effects.

The major difference between active and passive immunity is that active immunity is the ability to the production of antibodies by a person’s immune system in response to direct contact with an antigen.

On the other hand, passive immunity refers to short-term immunity resulting from the introduction of antibodies from the outside. Let us look at more differences between active and passive immunity.

Difference Between Active And Passive Immunity in Tabular Form

Active immunity

Passive immunity

Usually permanent (Long-lasting protection) Lasts for a few weeks or months (Short-term protection).
Active immunity is produced by the antibodies of the host in response to direct contact of an antigen Passive immunity is produced by the introduction of antibodies from outside to the host
Produce immunological memory. Does not produce immunological memory
antibodies and other specialized lymphocytes are produced while antigens enter the body. A mother introduces antibodies to a fetus through the placenta and to an infant via mother’s milk.
No side-effects. May cause reactions if it is given externally.
It has a slower response. It has a quick response.
Active immunity does not work in immunodeficient hosts. Passive immunity works in immunodeficient hosts.

Active immunity Vs. Passive immunity – overview

  • Passive immunity is acquired when antibodies are introduced into the body usually through vaccines. It provides a quick response to the infection. It does not produce immunological memory.
  • Active immunity is attained by exposure to a pathogen. Active immunity is produced by the antibodies of the host in response to direct contact of an antigen The antigens present on the surface of the pathogens act as markers that are bound to the antibodies.

What is Active immunity?

It requires a healthy immune system to act as an antagonist against pathogens. If once the person is exposed to the organism, that person will develop immunity due to antibodies against this type of organism. In inoculation of the pathogen and the release of antibodies, there is a lag between them.

At the end of the battle, finally, some cells produced during the initial exposure become memory cells, that would be activated on a massive scale if that person was to be exposed to this organism again. Active immunity can be categorized into two sub-divisions.

Active immunity can be natural immunity and then becomes resistant to this organism. In artificial immunity, the affected person is introduced with an attenuated as well as substances to activate the immune response. During artificial immunity, antigens are introduced artificially into the body in vaccine form.

The immune system of the body’s response to the first exposure to the pathogen is called the primary response. The secondary response produces a much stronger immune response. Active immune lasts a long time due to the generation of memory cells.

What is Passive Immunity?

It refers to short-term immunity resulting from the introduction of antibodies from outside. Hence, it does not require direct exposure of the body to pathogens. Therefore, the antibodies are introduced into the body, the immune response can be produced faster. while passive immunity only lasts for several days.

Similarities Between Active and Passive Immunity

  • Active immunity is mediated by antibodies produced by a person’s own cells. On the other hand, passive immunity is mediated by antibodies produced outside the body.
  • Active immunity’s pathogen comes in direct contact with the body. while passive immunity’s pathogen has no direct contact with the body.
  • Active immunity does not work in immunodeficient hosts. while passive immunity works in immunodeficient hosts.

 

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