Cross-Pollination And Self Pollination are the pollination method in the plant during its sexual reproduction. The process of transfers of pollen grains from anthers to the stigma of a flower. If this process is done between flowers of the same plant is called self-pollination. On the other hand, the transfers are made between flowers of different plants of the same species are called cross-pollination. Secondly, a pure line progeny is obtained by self-pollination.
Cross-pollination is a process in which the pollination process takes place between the pollen of the different flowers or plants or that of the new species. On the contrary, Self-pollination is the process in which the pollination process takes place between the pollen of the same flower or plant or that of the same species. In self-pollination, the pollen grains from the anther of a similar plant spill onto the surface of the stigma. Whereas cross-pollination is a method of transfer of pollen to the stigma of a flower of a different plant of the same species or different species.
Plants that are themselves carriers of self-pollination do not require external force, and cross-pollination does factor such as wind and insects. Those Plants that use self-pollination have dull-colored flowers compared to the flowers of plants that cross-pollinate. Plants that use self-pollination are less adapted to the modified environment compared to plants that use cross-pollination.
What is Cross-Pollination?
Cross-pollination is the process of deposition of pollen grains from the anther of a flower on the stigma of a flower of a different plant of the same species. The genetic material of two plants combines during cross-pollination, producing genetically varied offspring from the parents. The best tomato variants are produced intentionally by this kind of pollination. It requires external pollinators such as water, wind, animals, and insects.
Animals like birds and insects, butterflies, beetles, and bees are involved in cross-pollination. The most common pollinators are bees. Cross-pollinating flowers consist of various characteristics such as brightly colored petals, nectar, and aroma to attract insects, as well as long stamens and pistils, to shed pollen grains on the body of insects and obtain pollen grains from several plants, which are transported, out for insects. The cross-pollinating flowers consist of several mechanisms such as the maturation of stamens and carpels at different times to prevent self-pollination.
Examples of Cross-Pollination
Cross-pollination is observed in flowers of apples, grapes, plums, pears, raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, beans, pumpkins, daffodils, tulips, lavender are pollinated by insects and they are considered as examples of cross-pollination. The flowers of grasses, catkins, dandelions, maples, and goat’s beards are pollinated by the wind.
What is Self Pollination?
On the contrary, self-pollination is a process of the deposition of pollen grains from the anther of a flower on the stigma of the same flower or on the stigma of a different flower on the same plant. It occurs between the anthers and stigma of genetically identical flowers, producing genetically identical offspring to the parents. There are several self-reproducing pollinating types that are observed in self-pollinating plants. Pollination within the same flower is called autogamy.
Some flowers are connected to the same stem in several plants. The flowers, pollen grains from different flowers pollinate the flowers on the same stem. The carpels and stamens are of the same length, grouped into flowers, that use geitonogamy. Some flowers are self-pollinated even before opening. It’s called cleistogamy. Some of them that exhibit cleistogamy never open.
The advantage of self-pollination is that plants are able to reproduce, although there are not even external pollination agents to aid pollination. The disadvantage of self-pollination is that plants reduce the genetic diversity of plants in the same species.
Examples of Self Pollination
Self-pollination is observed in peanuts, orchids, peas, sunflowers, wheat, barley, oats, rice, tomatoes, potatoes, apricots, and peaches.
Difference Between Cross-Pollination And Self Pollination In Tabular Form