Chemistry

Difference Between Electronegativity And Electron Affinity

the tendency of atoms to attract the electrons towards them from other elements is known as electronegativity and the amount of energy to liberate a neutral molecule or neutral atom for acquiring electrons from other elements is called electron affinity which is applied only on a single atom. the basic difference between Electronegativity And Electron Affinity is that electronegativity is a chemical property that explains the bond polarity and covalent bond. it decides the tendency of the atom whether or not it attracts the electron in a covalent bond. while electron affinity is the amount of energy during electronegativity, that atom exerts on adding electrons in neutral atoms or molecules. it is a measurement and can be obtained easily.

Difference Between Electronegativity And Electron Affinity in tabular Form

Electronegativity Electron Affinity
It is the property related to the ability of an electron to attract towards an atom it is related to the release of energy whenever an electron tends to get added to an atom.
The ability of the atoms to attract the electrons from outside. The amount of energy that is liberated whenever a molecule or a neutral atom tends to acquire an electron from the other elements.
it is associated with an isolated atom. it is associated with an atom in a molecule.
E.g. Fluorine. E.g. Chlorine.
qualitative in nature. it is quantitative in nature.
measured in Pauling measured in KJ per mole.

Electronegativity Vs. Electron affinity – Overview

Electronegativity and electron affinity are different chemical properties associated with elements. The significant difference between these two terms is that electronegativity is the properties related to the ability of electrons to attract towards an atom. while electron affinity is the property that is related to the release of energy when an electron tends to get added to an atom. These two terms are often known to be interrelated but not interchangeable. Both these terms i.e. electron affinity and electronegativity deal with the movement of the electrons. Although, electron affinity is the result of the change in energy whereas electronegativity is the result of the property of attraction. you will study the difference between electronegativity and electron affinity in detail in this post.

What is Electronegativity?

It is the property of an atom that increases the tendency of an atom to attract the electrons of a bond. when two bonded atoms have the same electronegativity values as each other, they share electrons equally in a covalent bond. The electrons in a chemical bond are generally more attracted to one atom (the more electronegative one) than to the other. A polar covalent bond is formed as a result of electronegativity. When the electronegativity values are very different, electrons aren’t shared at all. The ionic bond is then formed when one atom essentially takes the bond electrons from the other atom. The most electronegative element is fluorine. The least electronegative element is francium.

Electronegativity Example

The Cl-atom has the highest electronegativity than H-atom. The bonding electrons will be closer to the chlorine than to the H in the HCl molecule. In the  O2 molecule, the atoms in this molecule have the same electronegativity. The electrons are shared equally in the covalent bond between the two oxygen atoms.

What is Electron Affinity?

It is the property of an atom that has the ability to accept an electron. The energy change in an atom occurs if an electron is added to a gaseous atom. Electron affinity is greater if the atoms contain a stronger effective nuclear charge. The amount of energy that is liberated whenever a molecule or a neutral atom tends to acquire an electron from the other elements.

The reaction that occurs when an atom accepts an electron and is represented as:

X + e → X + energy

It is the energy required to detach one electron from a negatively charged ion of an atom or molecule. Electron Affinity is represented using the symbol Ea and expressed in units of kJ/mol. Its value may be either positive or negative. A negative electron affinity means when energy is added in order to attach an electron to the ion. When an atom is added to the ion, this process is endothermic, while the process is exothermic when electron affinity is positive.

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