Chemistry

Difference Between Electrophile And Nucleophile

an electrophile is a chemical species that form bonds with nucleophiles by accepting an electron pair. an electrophile is a reagent that is in search of electrons. it is electron seeking reagent and takes away a pair of electrons. they are known as lewis acid. while a nucleophile is a chemical species that form bonds with electrophiles by donating an electron pair. one pi bond can act as nucleophiles. they are known as lewis base. the basic Difference Between Electrophile And Nucleophile is that Electrophile is a molecule that can receive pairs of electrons. whereas nucleophile is a molecule or an atom that can give a pair of electrons.

Difference Between Electrophile And Nucleophile in Tabular Form

Electrophile Nucleophile
An electrophile is chemical species that has a positive charge on it. this positive charge is known as a cation. A nucleophile is a chemical species that have a negative charge on it. this negative charge is known as an anion.
Also known as Lewis acid Also known as Lewis base
they possess an overall neutral charge having one or more empty valence shells. they possess an overall neutral charge having one or more lone pairs of electrons.
All carbocations are Electrophile. All carbanions are Nucleophile.
Always accepts electrons. Always donates electrons
Hydronium Ion is a good example of Electrophile. Chloride Ion is a good example of Nucleophile.
because of the acceptance of electrons, they are lovers of electrons. in contrast, due to the donation of electrons nucleophiles are lovers of the nucleus where protons reside.
accepts a pair of an electron to form a covalent bond. donates a pair of an electron to form a covalent bond.
Electrophiles are always Represented by the E+ symbol. Nucleophiles are always Represented by the NU- symbol.
due to the loss of electrons, they are known as electron-deficient due to the acceptance of electrons, they are known as  electron-rich
Belongs to the Lewis acid category. Belongs to the Lewis base category

 

What is Electrophile?

An electrophile is a reagent or species, that has a free orbital at the external electronic level and contains a positive charge on it. reagents are pairs of electrons that accept a pair of electrons during a chemical bond. In a chemical reaction, an electrophile attacks a reaction center with an excess of electrons.

An electrophile is a particle that attracts a carbon atom by accepting a pair of electrons from it and is known as Lewis acid.

Electrophile Examples

There are some examples of electrophile Boron Trifluoride (BF3), Aluminum Chloride (AlCl3), from Bronsted acid (Hydrogen ion (H3O), and the halogen molecules i.e. Chlorine, fluorine, iodine, and bromine are few common examples of electrophile. Hydronium Ion is a good example of Electrophile. Because of the acceptance of electrons and known as lewis acid.

What is Nucleophile?

A Nucleophile is a reagent or species that form bonds by donating a pair of electron. In a reaction, ions with a free pair of electrons with at least one pi bond can act as nucleophiles. Nucleophile means the “loving nuclei” because due to the donation of electrons nucleophiles are lovers of the nucleus where protons reside. It is a particle that attracts a C-atom by donating an electron pair. Therefore, it is known as Lewis base.

They have a lone pair of electrons at the external electronic level. Molecules of nucleophiles contain Pi-bonds due to the mobility of π-electrons.

Nucleophile Examples

OH, Cl, Br, CN, H2O, NH3, ROH, and CH3O­- etc. are some examples of nucleophiles. Neutral nucleophilic reactions such as alcohols and water are solvolysis with solvents. Nucleophiles are anions such as OH, or any compound with a electrons lone pair such as NH3 and PR3.

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