Difference Between Epidemic And Pandemic

For many years, we have been hearing about pandemics, endemics, or even epidemics. what is it all about? First of all, these terms are borrowed from the vocabulary of epidemiology, that is the study of the relationships between diseases and the factors likely to exert an influence on their frequency, their distribution, their evolution, and evoke an infectious disease. . Also remember that an infectious disease is a disease transmitted by a pathogenic microorganism while it is a bacterium, a virus or a parasite. A communicable or contagious disease is a disease that passes from an affected subject to a healthy subject. Both words are used to describe the widespread of diseases. It is recommended to balance the traditional distinction according to which the epidemic affects one country, whereas the pandemic spreads through several. How to avoid the transition from an endemic state to an epidemic or even a pandemic?

The major difference between epidemic and pandemic is that an epidemic is an infection that can spread beyond a small population and spread across communities and in the country.

What is endemic?

Endemic is defined by the usual presence of a disease, normally infectious in a determined population or a specific region, with a stable incidence. E.g. malaria is endemic in many African countries, just as hepatitis A is endemic in Thailand. Yellow fever is an endemic that has wreaked havoc in the tropical regions of Africa and South America, that is why it is necessary to get vaccinated before traveling to these countries. The endemic disease can be affected more people than an epidemic or even a pandemic. It is a disease that spreads by a country for some time. On the other hand, the pandemic spreads to other countries, as indicated in the Dictionary of medical terms, of the Royal Academy of Medicine.

What is the epidemic?

The epidemic is defined as the development and rapid spread of an infectious and contagious disease in a given region over a given period. The epidemic is the case with the seasonal flu epidemic in France and Spain which only appears during the winter period. Initially, the term epidemic only concerned infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, ebola, or more recently Covid-19 (coronavirus) which is part of viral epidemics. Epidemics can be bacterial like tuberculosis or plague, or both viral and bacterial, such as meningitis.

What is the pandemic?

A pandemic is a very large epidemic that starts from a localized area and then spreads to the whole world. Pandemic has nothing to do with the number of deaths caused by the disease in question. This can be raised during major imbalances linked to social and environmental changes over the course of history, such as agricultural revolutions, wars, and trade, travel and great discoveries, the industrial revolution, or globalization. The new transmissible pathogen can be emergence and a new disease caused by this new agent that promotes the birth of a pandemic. Nowadays, pandemic viral infections mainly concern AIDS and seasonal flu. And since 2003, three pandemics caused by the coronaviruses SARS, MERS and Covid19.

Difference Between Epidemic And Pandemic In Tabular Form




A disease that affects many in a population and begins to spread rapidly. It is a larger epidemic. The pandemic covers many countries or spreads from one continent to another.
When it affects a certain number of people within a short period of time, typically within 2 weeks, that outbreak of disease is considered an epidemic. People affected or killed don’t matter as much as the rate of spread and how far it has spread in pandemic outbreaks.
Belongs to a particular person or country. Spread over multiple countries or continents
Limited to the geographical bounds of a community, country, or continent. Can affects the entire world population.
Example: An epidemic disease in West African is Ebola Example: HIV AIDS, Asian Influenza and Cholera




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