Biology

Difference Between Gene And Allele

Genes and alleles are essential to basic genetics. In genetics (The branch of biology), we study inheritance. Inheritance is the process by which parents transmit their genetic load to their offspring. The basic difference between gene and allele is that a gene is a storage unit for genetic information, and it is a piece of DNA that will later determine the genetic traits of each individual. On the other hand, alleles are all the possible variations which a given gene can present. It is most important not to confuse both concepts, therefore they are similar, both are responsible for a different stage in the process of creating a new life. Both are essential to basic genetics. In this article, we compare genes and alleles and provide simple definitions, examples, and a table for both.

Overview

Both terms are used widely in the modern era in the medical field. Delving into genes and alleles, both are totally different from each other. when some think both are similar concepts. Now, medical science is broad that inside it breaks into different explanations. Now, as always we bring you first-rate pieces of information where we will discuss the major differences between gene and allele. If you have not heard both terms before, then don’t hesitate to read this section.

Difference Between Gene And Allele In Tabular Form

Gene

Allele

Definition

A piece of DNA that contains the genetic information for the synthesis of a protein is called a gene. A possible variation of a gene in a species.

Types

  • Coding genes: with information to synthesize proteins.
  • Noncoding genes: they act as regulators of protein synthesis.
  • Constitutive genes: they are expressed continuously.
  • Household genes: Maintain the basic functions of the cell.
  • Facultative genes: only expressed under certain conditions.
  • Inducible genes: Are expressed in response to certain stimuli.
  • Dominant alleles: express whenever it is present.
  • Recessive alleles: express only when it occurs in identical pairs.
  • Wild alleles: is the allele WHICH is predominantly expressed in the majority of the population of a species
  • Mutant alleles: The allele other than the wild one.

Quantity

In diploid eukaryotic cells, they occur in pairs, one from the father and the other from the mother. Each gene can be multiple alleles.

Transformation

Genes are passed down from the parents to the offspring.

 

Alleles determine the features in a person

Where are they?

Within each chromosome. Within each gene.

Examples

Eye color, blood type, hair type, and skin color. Blue or brown eyes; blood, type A or B; hair, curly or straight, and skin, light or dark.

What is a Gene?

The word “gene” comes from the Greek root gĂ©nos, which means ‘race’ or ‘origin’.A gene is a fragment incorporated into DNA, that stores and reveals genetic information inherited from our relatives. Genes represent the traits of every individual. Gregor Mendel was the first to describe genes as “bundles of inheritance.”In fact, they fight between the two to dominate one over the other. As is the case with the genes of the father or the mother to their offspring. The winner indicates the skin color, eye color, and hair shape.

Read Also: Genetics basics

A genome is the set of genes of an individual that determines the genotype or DNA sequence of the genome. The phenotype is represented by the visible and measurable characteristics and traits of the living being. While the position on the chromosome of a gene is called a locus.

What is the basic structure of a gene?

Gene is made up of DNA in most organisms. The pieces of information necessary for the survival and reproduction of living beings is present in the genes. Each gene comprises a promoter, a coding region, and a terminator.

What are characteristics controlled by genes?

  • Gene is made up of DNA.
  • Genes are transmitted by inheritance from the parents.
  • About 20,000 genes occur in humans.
  • They are replicated in the form of messenger RNA.
  • Gene can undergo changes that produce a genetic mutation, giving rise to alleles.
  • In eukaryotes, genes have coding sequences (exons) and non-coding sequences (introns).

What is the main function of genes?

  • The information of the gene to be expressed in the form of a protein, there are sequences in DNA called promoters.
  • The enzyme in charge of “reading the gene” is RNA polymerase, and forms messenger RNA from the genetic sequence.
  • The messenger RNA is translated into proteins on ribosomes.
  • Mainly, genes store the code that transmits the specific biological characteristics of each living being, from one generation to another.

What is an allele?

The allele can be defined as it is the variation, or change, of how a gene will behave. The genetic characteristics of the individual are expressed such as for the color of the eyes, where there is a specific allele for the colors green or blue.

Where are the alleles found?

Alleles are variants of a gene that are found in the same place on chromosomes. The locus is the location on the chromosome where a gene is found.

Characteristic of Alleles

  • Occurs in pair, one for each parent.
  • When an allele is dominant the characteristics are presented in the phenotypic traits.
  • when the allele is recessive it remains within the individual while it is dominated by the same gene.
  • It Expresses the phenotypic traits of an organism.

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