Chemistry

Difference Between Glucose and Fructose

Glucose and Fructose both are types of monosaccharide sugars. the basic difference between Glucose and Fructose is that Glucose is a monosaccharide with reducing sugar and having no glycosidic bonds. its molar mass is about 180g/mol with a high melting point of about 146-150 degrees Celcius while Fructose is a disaccharide with reducing sugar. it has glycosidic bonds among the molecules of fructose and glucose with a molar mass of about 342.29 g/mol. they possess high melting points of about 185 degrees Celcius.

Difference Between Glucose and Fructose in Tabular Form

Glucose Fructose
it is a simple sugar or monosaccharide it is fruit sugar.
It is aldohexose fructose is also involved in lipogenesis
Glucose is a six-membered ring. Fructose is a membered ring
They are the preferred energy source for the body Not the preferred energy source for brain and other muscles.
it offers calories from carbohydrates fructose is used in the food industry to improve flavor.
Produce less fat. Produce more fat.
aldohexose ketohexose
pyranose ring structure furan ring structure

Glucose Vs. Fructose – Overview

Fructose is the most common monosaccharide one of the three, the other two are glucose and galactose. A monosaccharide is the most fundamental type of carbohydrate. it is known as simple sugars as opposed to the more complex forms such as oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Glucose is the most abundant. Glucose is used metabolically, particularly in energy metabolism. Fruits and vegetables contain fructose and glucose naturally.

Glucose

C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H is the molecular formula for glucose.  CH2O is its empirical or simplest formula that represented two hydrogen atoms for each carbon and oxygen atom in the molecule. Glucose is the sugar that is produced by plants during photosynthesis and that circulates in the blood in the body and other animals as an energy source. Glucose is also known as dextrose, blood sugar, corn sugar, grape sugar, or also IUPAC systematic name (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanal.

it is a monosaccharide and is the most abundant, also known as grape sugar. It is aldohexose. Glucose provides a source of energy for our muscles and brain.

Uses of Glucose

  • Glucose can be provided to patients who are extremely ill and unable to feed because it offers calories from carbohydrates
  • Glucose can also be used in the treatment of low blood sugar.
  • It can be used for the synthesis of matter as a precursor.

Fructose

Generally, Fructose is found together with glucose and sucrose in honey and fruit juices. Fructose and glucose are the monosaccharides found in the disaccharide, sucrose. Fructose can be classified as a monosaccharide, the most important ketose sugar, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar. It is naturally found in fruits, honey, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables. It is also known as a simple sugar. Crystalline fructose exists in a ring structure.

Properties of Fructose

Fructose contains a molar mass of about 180.156 g.mol-1.

  • About 103℃ melting point
  • Soluble in water
  • Sweet in taste
  • white crystalline solid at room temperature.
  • odorless sugar.
  • Excellent humectant.

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