Chemistry

Difference Between Ionic Covalent and Metallic bonds

An ionic bond is formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. A covalent bond is formed when two-atom share their valence electrons. a metallic bond is formed due to chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons and positively charged metal ions. the basic Difference Between Ionic Covalent and Metallic bonds is that in ionic bonds, atoms give off or accept electrons from another atom. they have high melting and boiling points.  in covalent bonds, atoms share electrons with another atom. they have low melting and boiling points. but in metallic bonds, atoms release their electrons to become cations. metallic bonds have high melting and boiling points.

Difference Between Ionic Covalent and Metallic bonds in tabular Form

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Metallic bond

they are formed when electrons are transferred. they are formed when pair of atoms share their valence electrons. when the attraction occurs between metal cations and anions, electrons are delocalized as a result. hence metallic bonds are created.
Ionic Bonds have higher binding energy than metallic bonds and covalent bonds. Covalent bonds also have higher binding energy than metallic bonds and lower binding energy than ionic bonds. Metallic bonds possess lesser energy than both covalent and ionic bonds.
known for Non-ductile. known for Non-ductile. known for ductility.
conductivity is low. conductivity is very low. conductivity is very high.
they also have Higher boiling points. they also have lower boiling points. they also have high boiling points.
bond has no direction in Isomerism. bond has a direction in Isomerism. bond has no direction Isomerism.
they are hard due to their crystalline structure. they are not very hard except for fewer cases. eg. diamond, silicon, and carbon, etc. they are also not very hard in structure.
only present in solid-state of matter. present in all three states of matter. they are also present in solid-state only.
NaCl, Cfa2, and BeO are common examples. water molecules, nitrogen gas, diamond, and silica are common examples. iron, nickel, gold, silver, copper are common examples.
they are Unmoldable. they are also Unmoldable. they are moldable.
have high melting points have low melting points. have high melting points.

What is Ionic Bond?

The ionic bond is formed by electrostatic attraction between positively charged ions in a chemical compound. The ionic bonds are formed when the valence electrons are transferred permanently from one atom to another atom. The atoms become positive ions when they lose electrons (donate electrons).

Actually, an ionic bond is an extreme case of a polar covalent bond and results in unequal sharing of electrons rather than complete electron transfer.

For example, in NaCl molecule, when sodium atom attracts chlorine atom, sodium loses one valence electron to the chlorine. the positively charged sodium ion creates and also a negatively charged chlorine ion.  NaF, NaI, KI, KBr, CaO, etc. are some common examples in which the ionic bond is formed.

What is Covalent Bond?

A covalent bond is a chemical link between atoms where electron pairs are shared. A covalent bond is created by the overlapping of two atomic orbitals and this bond also occurs between two nonmetal atoms and nonmetal compounds that possess similar values of electronegativity.

Electrons pair shared in this bond increase the stability of the individual atoms. Nonmetal atoms like carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, etc form covalent bonds with themselves or with other atoms. For example, in the H2 molecule, the hydrogen atoms share two electrons by covalent bonding.

What is a Metallic bond?

It is a chemical bond formed between positively charged atoms in which the free electrons are shared among a lattice of cations. Covalent and ionic bonds contrast between two discrete atoms. The metallic bond is the main chemical bond that forms between two atoms of metal.

For example, elemental gallium is consists of covalent bond pairs of atoms in solid and liquid states. the pairs of gallium form a crystal structure with metallic bonding between them. A metal-metal covalent bond between mercurous ions (Hg2+) is another main example of a metallic bond.

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