Biology

Difference Between Replication And Transcription

DNA replication can be defined as the replication of DNA that involves the nitrogenous base uracil while the transcription involves the nitrogenous base thymine. The major difference between DNA replication and transcription is that DNA Replication is a process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules. When a cell divides, the two new daughter cells must contain the same genetic information, or DNA, as the parent cell. On the other hand, transcription can be defined as the process by which the genetic information contained within DNA is re-written into a messenger RNA (mRNA) with the help of RNA polymerase. In this article, you will learn about the major differences between replication and transcription of DNA in detail.

Difference Between Replication And Transcription in Tabular Form

Replication

Transcription

It produces two exact of the original double-stranded DNA molecule. It produces a single-stranded DNA molecule Using the double-stranded DNA.
DNA replication occurs in the S phase when the cell is preparing for the separation. Transcription occurs in the G1 & G2 phase when the cell needs to synthesize proteins.
Replication requires DNA primer. It does not require primer.
The raw materials utilized are dATP, dGTP, dCTP, and dTTP ATP, GTP, CTP, and GTP are the raw materials in this process.
Two DNA strands act as templates. Only one DNA strand acts as a template.
Adenine pairs are based on Thymine. Adenine pairs are based on uracil.
It forms Two daughter molecules of DNA. It forms mRNA, rRNA, non-coding RNA, and tRNA

Replication Vs. Transcription – Overview

DNA replication and transcription are both involved in the binding of complementary nucleotides into DNA, yielding new DNA and RNA strands respectively. DNA Replication produces two exact replicas of the whole genome in order to undergo cell division.  while transcription is the first step to separate genes, where the necessary proteins for cell functioning are produced. In transcription, only small DNA sequences are transcribed into RNA. The major difference between DNA replication and transcription is that DNA replication is the process of making an exact replica of the genome, on the other hand,  transcription is the transfer of genetic information of a particular segment of DNA into RNA.

What is DNA Replication?

DNA replication is defined as the process by which a double-stranded molecule of DNA is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules. In this process, when a cell divides, the two new daughter cells contain the same genetic information as the parent cell. It is a process in which it produces two exact replicas of DNA from an original DNA molecule. The genetic information stored in the DNA is inherited through the progeny by the replication of DNA. During the replication process, two DNA strands serve as templates. As a result, DNA replication is considered to occur in a semiconservative manner.

Replication initiates at specific points, called the origin of reapplication points, where the double helix of DNA is unwound. A short segment of RNA is called a primer. Replication requires DNA primer. A primer can be defined as the short nucleic acid sequence that provides a starting point for DNA synthesis. In living organisms, primers are short strands of RNA. The Enzyme DNA replication polymerase next forms replicating the DNA by matching bases to the original strand. When DNA synthesis is completed, the RNA primers are replaced with DNA. The raw materials utilized are dATP, dGTP, dCTP, and dTTP. It forms Two daughter molecules of DNA.

Steps of RNA Replication

The steps of DNA replication is given below:

  • Replication fork formation
  • Primer binding
  • Elongation
  • Termination

What is Transcription?

It is a process that which a DNA sequence is copied into RNA with the aid of enzymes, RNA polymerase. It produces a single-stranded DNA molecule Using the double-stranded DNA. ATP, GTP, CTP, and GTP are the raw materials in this process. Transcription occurs in the G1 & G2 phase when the cell needs to synthesize proteins. Genes are transcribed into mRNAs in order to initiate gene expression. mRNA primary transcript is synthesized by RNA polymerase by reading the antisense DNA strand from the 3′ to 5′ direction. The resulting RNA strand is complementary and antiparallel to the template. The RNA that is synthesized is known as the transcript. Genes consist of coding sequences and regulatory sequences. The amino acid sequence of a protein is encoded by coding sequence while regulatory sequences encode the gene expression.

Function of Replication and Transcription
  • DNA Replication transmits the entire gene into the offspring.
  • Replication requires DNA primer.
  • Transcription generates the RNA copies of a particular gene.
  • Transcription does not require primer.

Similarities Between Replication and Transcription

There are some similarities between DNA replication and transcription. Replication and transcription both involve binding complementary nucleic acids to DNA, which yields a new strand of either DNA or RNA. DNA replication occurs when the cell is preparing for cell division while transcription is a process in which genes are copied into RNA in order to synthesize proteins for cellular functions.

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