both sigma and pi bonds are covalent bonds that are formed by overlapping atomic orbitals with each other. but, sigma bonds are formed when end-to-end overlapping occurs. on the other hand, pi bonds are formed due to the lobe of one atomic orbital that overlaps another bond. the basic difference between Sigma And Pi Bond is that the sigma bond is less reactive where free rotation of atoms is possible. it is independent of existence while the pi bond is less reactive, rotation of free electrons is not possible. it is formed when sigma bonds are once formed.
Difference Between Sigma And Pi Bond in Tabular Form
|Sigma Bond||Pi Bond|
|Covalent bonds which are formed by the head-on overlapping atomic orbitals||Covalent bonds are formed by lateral overlapping of the half-filled atomic orbitals of atoms|
|strong covalent bond||weaker than a sigma bond|
|formed at first when atoms interact||formed between two atoms after the formation of sigma bonds|
|overlapping orbitals can be pure orbitals, hybrid orbitals, and one hybrid and one pure orbital.||overlapping orbitals are always pure orbitals only. Pure orbitals are unhybridized orbitals in pi bonds.|
|E.g. alkane||E.g. alkene and alkyne|
|cylindrical charge symmetry around the axis of the bond.||No symmetry exists|
|sigma bonds can be highly reactive||Atoms with pi bonds are not as reactive in nature|
|used to determine the shapes of molecules.||cannot be used to determine the shapes of molecules.|
Sigma vs Pi Bond – Overview
both types of bonds are used to describe the covalent bond properties. they are always the molecules adjacent to two or three atoms and are formed by overlapping of incompletes,s, and p, orbitals. these orbitals belong to atoms of participating bonds.
due to the overlapping of bonds, this model is also known as the overlapping model which is mainly used for explaining the formation of bonds for smaller types of atoms. this theory or phenomenon does not explain longer or larger molecules. the major difference between sigma and pi bonds lies between their formation and axial overlapping of two orbitals.
What is Sigma Bond?
The coaxial or linear overlap of atomic orbitals of two atoms forms a sigma bond. It is the primary bond found in single, double, and triple bonds. However, there can only be one sigma bond between two atoms. The sigma bond is stronger than the pi bond because the sigma bond has a maximum overlap of atomic orbitals.
It contains a single electron cloud that lies along the binding axis. Sigma bonding is the first bond formed during the formation of a covalent bond. Unlike pi bonds, both hybridized and unhybridized orbitals form sigma bonds.
What is Pi Bond?
The pi bond is formed by the lateral or lateral or parallel overlap of atomic orbitals. These bonds are weaker than Sigma bonds due to the minimum extent of overlap. In addition, pi bonds are formed after the formation of sigma bonds. Consequently, these bonds are always present with sigma bonding.
The Pi bonds are formed by overlapping unhybridized pp atomic orbitals. Unlike sigma bonds, the pi bonds do not affect the shape of a molecule. Single bonds are sigma bonds. But double and triple bonds have one and two pi bonds and one sigma bond, respectively.
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