Difference between Solid Liquid and Gas

the main Difference between Solid Liquid and Gas is that a solid is a state of matter that which particles are in a fixed arrangement and touch each other due to vibrational motions. while a liquid is a state of matter in which particles are randomly arranged and touch each other. Gas is also a state of matter in which particles move quickly and randomly in all directions and rarely touch each other.

the molecules in solids are rigid. these molecules in solid can only vibrate to and fro about their fixed positions. the intermolecular forces are very strong between the molecules of solids.

a liquid has a definite volume but not a definite shape. the molecules possessed by liquids are non-rigid. these molecules can move within the boundary of the vessel. the molecules of liquid do not remain fixed at their positions. the intermolecular forces are less strong as compare to solids.

a gas has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. the molecules are non-rigid. the molecules in gas can move randomly in the available space. the intermolecular forces are much weak between the molecules of gases. the molecules in a gas are much apart.

Difference between Solid Liquid and Gas in tabular Form




It is a form of matter having a rigid structure and firm shape They are substances flowing freely with no permanent shape but a definite volume Gas is a state of matter which does not have a shape but takes the shape of the container you put it in
It has the lowest energy It has medium energy They have the highest energy
These are hard to compress You can compress them a little difficulty These are easily compressible
It has a fixed shape plus volume No fixed shape but they do have volume They have neither definite shape nor volume
Molecules are regular and arranged closely Randomly molecules arranged sparsely Their molecules are random and arranged more sparsely
They have very little intermolecular space They have more intermolecular space These have the most intermolecular space
They cannot flow These flow from a higher level to a lower They flow in all directions
They do not require a container for storage These require a container for storage These require a close container for storage
They have the maximum intermolecular attraction These have a medium intermolecular attraction They have the lowest intermolecular attraction
retains a fixed volume and shape
rigid – particles locked into place
assumes the shape of the part of the container which it occupies
particles can move/slide past one another
assumes the shape and volume of its container
particles can move past one another
Solids have low kinetic energy. Liquids have medium kinetic energy. But gases have the highest kinetic energy.

What are Solids?

solids are concerned in solid-state chemistry. it is a branch of chemistry that studies the various aspects of the solid phase of different substances. it also deals with the applications, structure, and properties of solids. scientists in solid-state chemistry also research the crystalline and amorphous solids of organic and inorganic substances.

A solid is one of the basic states of three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). a solid can be of two types crystalline and amorphous solids. the crystalline solids are characterized by the spatial periodicity of the arrangement of equilibrium positions. a regular polyhedron is a natural form of crystals.

on the other hand, amorphous solids are those atoms that vibrate around random points. their order is short-range and is preserved. the glassy state is a particular case for the amorphous solid state.

What are Liquids?

A liquid is also one of the major three states of matter. the particles of liquids are free to flow in the container. it has a certain volume like solids but does not have a specified shape and adopts the shape of the container. they are also made up of the combination of different atoms or molecules. these molecules are interlinked with each other by intermolecular bonds i.e. ionic or covalent bonds.

Examples of liquids

Water, vegetable oil, mercury, ethanol, air all are examples of liquids. from these examples, only mercury is considered liquid at room temperature. francium, cesium, gallium, and rubidium can also be liquified by increasing the temperatures but at room temperature, they are solids or gases.

Properties of liquids

the chemical composition of liquids can be different in various liquids. hence, the liquid state of matter possess various properties which are as follows:

  • they are incompressible even under pressure their value can be changed or decreased slightly.
  • the density of liquids always depends on the pressure that can be changed in a small value. it is a constant value that remains higher than the gaseous state but lower than the solid-state.
  • they adopt the shape of the container but cannot disperse to fill the container like gases.
  • they have a surface tension which consequences wetting.
  • their particles are allowed the freedom to move in the container than solids.

What are Gases?

Gas is also a basic state from the three states of matter characterized by weak interaction between atoms or molecules. the average kinetic energy of constituent particles of gases is high as compared to liquids and solids. as a result, they always collide with the walls of the container and fill the entire space provided to them. they are macroscopically homogeneous and isotropic in nature.

List of Gases

  • Ammonia (NH3)
  • Hydrogen (H2)
  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Nitric Oxide (NO)
  • Chlorine (CI2)
  • Ethylene (C2H4)
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Propane (C2H8)
  • Ozone (O3)
  • Oxygen (O2)
  • Feron (CFC)

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