Distillation is an important organic process and the laboratory technique consists of heating a liquid until to get the most volatile components at the vapor phase. in other words, it is used in the process of separation of miscible substances. simple distillation, fractional distillation, steam distillation, and vacuum distillation are some common and Different Distillation Techniques.
What is Distillation?
since distillation is an important laboratory technique and commonly used method for separation and purification of different mixtures for finding the individual components. it simply allows the mixtures to separate from each other by the use of boiling and condensation. the separation can be complete or partially complete that leaves the concentration at a high ratio in the mixture.
it is highly dependable on the boiling point of component mixtures. if the difference between boiling points of components rises, better this technique will work. hence, a better quality of separation can be obtained from their components.
in this process, the mixtures are heated until they reach the boiling level. when mixtures start to heat, temperature increases and raches at the boiling point of the lower boiling substance. while the higher boiling point substance remains the same. their components should also remain in their original state.
A list of Elements are involved in the distillation process:
- Heat source
- Fixed head
- Distillate/receiving flask
- Fixed receiver
- Cooling water
- Vacuum/gas inlet
- Heat control
- Heating bath (oil/sand)
- Stirrer/heating plate
- Stirring media
- Thermometer/Boiling point temperature
- Cooling water outlet
- Agitator speed control
- Round bottom flask
- Cooling bath
Types of Distillation Techniques
- Simple distillation
- Steam Distillation
- Fractional Distillation
- Ball furnace distillation
- Azeotropic Distillation
- Extractive Distillation
- Vacuum Distillation
- Air-sensitive vacuum distillation
- Short path distillation
- Zone distillation
using simple distillation, many mixtures of liquids are distilled having only one or more than one volatile substance. the boiling point will be different from those having boiling point more volatile components in at least 80 ° C. the simple distillation is further categorized into (Atmospheric pressure distillation) and (Reduced pressure distillation).
- Atmospheric pressure distillation: in this distillation, ambient pressure is carried out. if the boiling point of the chemical composition product is lower then this technique is widely used.
- Reduced pressure distillation: to reduce the pressure in distillation process assembly it is used. if the boiling point temperature of the chemical composition temperature of the product is lower than the boiling point of the compound, reduce pressure distillation is very helpful.
it separates the slightly volatile substances from other non-volatile substances and allows water-insoluble to separate them easily. isolate high-boiling compounds are separated by using low-temperature distillation under the range of below 100 ºC. this technique is used for those substances having boiling points much higher than 100 ºC. they are decomposed through this technique before reaching out the boiling point temperature.
in this technique, those mixtures of liquid are distilled that contain volatile substances having a variety of boiling points less than 80 ºC. it can also reduce the temperature of products.
Ball furnace distillation:
Ball furnace distillation is a vacuum distillation that is useful for dead volumes. it is commonly used for separations between solids and liquids. some polymeric or oils are melt at low melting points, hence, this technique is the best alternative and quite helpful for those substances.